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  • 乡村生活污水处理中的除磷技巧应用
  • 本站编辑:浙江鹏达环保科技无限公司发布日期:2019-06-14 16:08 浏览次数:

随着我国农平易近经济支出赓续进步和生活方法的变更,卫生洁具、洗衣机、洗澡等举措措施曾经走进平常庶平易近家,这使得乡村人均生活用水量和污水排放量赓续增长。这些污水大年夜部分未经处理或经过简单处理就直接排放到情况中,不只给周边流域水情况质量带来负面影响,并且渐渐对人类安康构成威逼。移动床生物膜反响器(MBBR)-离子交换除磷工艺属于一种新型的乡村生活污水处理组合工艺,本文简介了该工艺在处理乡村生活污水中的特点及优势,并结合实际工程案例加以解释。

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With the continuous improvement of farmers'economic income and the change of their lifestyle, sanitary wares, washing machines and bathing facilities have entered ordinary people's homes, which makes the per capita water consumption and sewage discharge in rural areas increase continuously. Most of these wastewater is directly discharged into the environment without treatment or simple treatment, which not only has a negative impact on the water environment quality of the surrounding watershed, but also gradually poses a threat to human health. Mobile Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) - Ion Exchange Phosphorus Removal Process is a new combined process for rural domestic sewage treatment. This paper introduces the characteristics and advantages of this process in the treatment of rural domestic sewage, and illustrates it with practical engineering cases.

一、乡村生活污水概述

Summary of Rural Domestic Sewage

1.乡村生活污水来源及重要污染物

1. Sources and main pollutants of rural domestic sewage

乡村生活污水是指在乡村居平易近的生活过程当中产生的污水,重要包含冲厕污水、厨房污水和洗濯、沐浴污水,另外,还包含一些乡村分散养殖过程当中所产生的污水。研究注解,生活污水的污染物主如果无机物、氮和磷。个中,厨房污水和冲厕污水是无机物的重要来源,冲厕污水是氮的重要来源,洗濯、沐浴污水是磷的重要来源。

Rural domestic sewage refers to the sewage produced in the life of rural residents, mainly including toilet flushing sewage, kitchen sewage, washing and bathing sewage, in addition, it also includes some sewage produced in the process of decentralized farming in rural areas. The results show that the main pollutants in domestic sewage are organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus. Among them, kitchen sewage and toilet flushing sewage are the main sources of organic matter, toilet flushing sewage is the main source of nitrogen, washing and bathing sewage is the main source of phosphorus.

2.乡村生活污水的特点

2. Characteristics of Rural Domestic Sewage

乡村生活污水的排放水质变更大年夜,排放不均匀。普通来讲,乡村一天当中生活污水排放量有早、中、晚3个岑岭期,而午夜到凌晨污水产生量很少乃至出现断流景象。

The discharge of rural domestic sewage varies greatly and the discharge is uneven. Generally speaking, the discharge of domestic sewage in rural areas has three peaks in one day: early, mid and late, while the discharge of domestic sewage from midnight to early morning is rarely or even breaks.

另外,乡村生活污水的水质与居平易近的生活习气和本地风气味息相干,生化需氧量(BOD)、氮和磷的含质变更范围比较广,但乡村生活污水水质不是很差,可生化性好,简直不含有毒有害等无机污染物和重金属离子。

In addition, the quality of rural domestic sewage is closely related to residents'living habits and local customs. The contents of BOD, nitrogen and phosphorus vary widely, but the quality of rural domestic sewage is not very poor, and it has good biodegradability, and contains almost no toxic and harmful organic pollutants and heavy metal ions.

2、移动床生物膜反响器(MBBR)-离子交换除磷工艺分析

II. Analysis of Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) - Ion Exchange Phosphorus Removal Process

1.工艺选择准绳

1. Principles of Process Selection

由于我国乡村经济比拟城市欠蓬勃,很难装备专业的污水处理、运转管理人员,是以不克不及将过于复杂的城镇生活污水处理工艺照搬至乡村。同时,推敲到乡村人口栖息特点和生活污水的特点,选择乡村污水处理工艺技巧时,应推敲以下基来源基本则:主动化程度高,运转和前期保护管理简单;抗冲击负荷才能强,处理后的污水能达标排放;尽可能增添污泥产量或许根本无污泥产生;优先推敲“过度集中处理”的形式,降低扶植和运转费用。

Because the rural economy of our country is less developed than that of the city, it is difficult to equip professional sewage treatment and operation managers, so we can not copy the over-complicated municipal sewage treatment technology to the rural areas. At the same time, considering the residential characteristics of rural population and the characteristics of domestic sewage, the following basic principles should be taken into account when selecting rural sewage treatment technology: high automation, simple operation and late maintenance management; strong anti-impact load capacity, the treated sewage can meet the discharge standards; minimizing sludge production or basically no sludge production; giving priority to "moderate concentration place"; The mode of "rationalization" can reduce the construction and operation costs.

2.MBBR处理乡村生活污水的优势及缺点分析

2. Advantages and Disadvantages of MBBR in Rural Domestic Sewage Treatment

(1)工艺优势分析

(1) Process Advantage Analysis

起首,相关于A2/0和膜生物反响器(MBR)工艺,MBBR操作运转简单,无需调试复杂的工艺参数,前期的运转保护便利。

Firstly, compared with A2/0 and MBR process, MBBR operation is simple, without debugging complex process parameters, and later operation and maintenance is convenient.

同时,MBBR高性能填料上富集了大年夜量的活性微生物,增长了活性污泥量,抗负荷才能晋升,污水处理才能加强,即使短时间内无进水,其外部的生态情况也能使活性微生物保持休眠状况,并且一旦重新进水,活性微生物的恢复速度远快于浅显悬浮状况的微生物,合适乡村生活污水水质变更大年夜、排放不均匀的特点。

At the same time, MBBR high-performance filler enriched a large number of active microorganisms, increased the amount of activated sludge, increased load resistance, enhanced sewage treatment capacity, even if there is no water in a short time, its internal ecological environment can make the active microorganisms remain dormant, and once re-inflow, the recovery rate of active microorganisms is much faster than that of ordinary suspended microorganisms, which is suitable. Rural domestic sewage is characterized by large variation in water volume and uneven discharge.

另外,在乡村生活污水处理工艺中,MBBR是一种微动力、低能耗工艺。曝气过程当中,高性能填料之间的相互磨擦及剪切感化,可负气泡变得更小,增长氧气的应用率,进步曝气效力,降低曝气能耗。另外一方面,在日处理量不大年夜的乡村生活污水处理过程当中,MBBR工艺的曝气风机完全可以采取风量大年夜、低耗能、噪音小的电磁鼓风机,最大年夜程度地降低能耗及对周边情况的搅扰。

In addition, MBBR is a micro-power and low energy consumption process in rural domestic sewage treatment process. In the aeration process, the friction and shear between high performance fillers can make the bubble smaller, increase the utilization rate of oxygen, improve the aeration efficiency and reduce the energy consumption of aeration. On the other hand, in the process of rural domestic sewage treatment with a small amount of daily treatment, the MBBR process aerator can completely use the electromagnetic blower with large air volume, low energy consumption and low noise to minimize energy consumption and interference to the surrounding environment.

最后,MBBR工艺的特点可使其在高容积负荷、低污泥负荷下运转,工艺过程当中残剩污泥产量低或长时间内可做到根本无残剩污泥的外排。是以,大年夜大年夜增添了污泥的产量,合适乡村的根本情况,并且降低了污泥处理费用。

Finally, the characteristics of MBBR process can make it run under high volume load and low sludge load, and the production of excess sludge is low or no excess sludge can be discharged for a long time. Therefore, the sludge production is greatly reduced, which is suitable for the basic situation in rural areas and reduces the cost of sludge treatment.

(2)工艺优势分析

(2) Process disadvantage analysis

MBBR工艺用于乡村生活污水的处理,与A2/0和MBR比拟,今朝唯一的优势在于没法有效包管磷元素的去除,特别是在进水磷含量高,出水磷含量低的情况下。由于生物法中磷元素的去除依托于残剩污泥的外排,而为了完成污泥减量化来适应乡村的根本情况,MBBR工艺根本不排泥或许很长时间才排放一次从高性能填估中零落的掉活污泥,这就使得磷元素的去除成为MBBR工艺的一个优势地点。

Compared with A2/0 and MBR, the only disadvantage of MBBR process in rural domestic sewage treatment is that it can not effectively ensure the removal of phosphorus elements, especially in the case of high phosphorus content in influent and low phosphorus content in effluent. Because the removal of phosphorus in biological process relies on the discharge of excess sludge, and in order to achieve sludge reduction to adapt to the basic situation of rural areas, MBBR process does not discharge sludge or only discharges inactivated sludge from high-performance fillers once in a long time, which makes phosphorus removal become a disadvantage of MBBR process.

3.离子交换除磷工艺的优势

3. Advantages of ion exchange phosphorus removal process

今朝,水体除磷的主流工艺包含生物除磷、加药除磷、人工湿地除磷、离子交换除磷和电化学除磷等。

At present, the main processes of phosphorus removal in water include biological phosphorus removal, chemical phosphorus removal, constructed wetland phosphorus removal, ion exchange phosphorus removal and electrochemical phosphorus removal.

经过过程比较不合除磷技巧的优缺点,选择离子交换除磷技巧作为MBBR的弥补除磷工艺构成乡村生活污水的强化除磷工艺,重要来由以下:离子交换除磷技巧出水稳定;运转简单,操作便利;无污泥产生;离子交换树脂可以轮回再生,反复应用,经久运转可以降低本钱。

By comparing the advantages and disadvantages of different phosphorus removal technologies, ion exchange phosphorus removal technology is selected as the supplementary phosphorus removal process of MBBR to form the enhanced phosphorus removal process for rural domestic sewage. The main reasons are as follows: ion exchange phosphorus removal technology has stable effluent, simple operation, no sludge production; ion exchange resin can be recycled and reused, and long-term operation can reduce costs.

4.MBBR-离子交换除磷

4. Phosphorus Removal by MBBR-Ion Exchange

MBBR-离子交换除磷工艺流程共分为四步

MBBR-ion exchange phosphorus removal process is divided into four steps

第一步,生活污水起首经调理池均量均质后由晋升泵进入厌氧区

In the first step, domestic sewage is first homogenized in the regulating tank and then entered into the anaerobic zone by the lifting pump.


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